The New Great Game
China and South and Central Asia in the Era of Reform
Edited by Thomas Fingar



Vivek Arora is a deputy director in the International Monetary Fund’s Strategy, Policy and Review Department, where he oversees the department’s work on a range of emerging market issues, including capital flows and related policies, and has a range of country and policy review responsibilities. Arora was the fund’s senior resident representative in China in 2006–2010 and in South Africa in 2004–2006. He joined the IMF in 1992 and has worked on a variety of country assignments, including the United States, Canada, Korea, and the Philippines. He has published research papers on economic growth and spillovers, emerging market finance, monetary and fiscal policy, exchange rate regimes, and the Chinese economy. Arora received a PhD in economics from Brown University and a BA (with honors) in economics from St. Stephen’s College, Delhi University. He studied international finance at Harvard University under the Brown-Harvard Graduate Exchange Program.

Cristina Constantinescu is a research assistant in the International Monetary Fund’s Strategy, Policy and Review Department. She worked previously in the Research Department of the World Bank. Her publications include a number of journal articles and book chapters on trade policy, trade in services, and international migration. She has a PhD in economics from the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium; an MA in economics from Georgetown University; and BA degrees in accounting from the Academy of Economic Studies (Romania) and in international economics from the Romanian-American University.

Thomas Fingar is the inaugural Oksenberg-Rohlen Distinguished Fellow in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University. From May 2005 through December 2008, he served as the first deputy director of national intelligence for analysis and, concurrently, as chairman of the National Intelligence Council. He served previously as assistant secretary of the State Department’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research (2004–2005), principal deputy assistant secretary (2001–2003), deputy assistant secretary for analysis (1994–2000), director of the Office of Analysis for East Asia and the Pacific (1989–1994), and chief of the China Division (1986–1989). Fingar is a graduate of Cornell University (AB in government and history, 1968) and Stanford University (MA, 1969, and PhD, 1977, both in political science).

Hu Shisheng is a senior research fellow and the director of the Institute for South and Southeast Asian and Oceania Studies at the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR). Hu received his BA in Hindi language and literature and his MA in Sanskrit and Bali languages and literature in the Department of Oriental Studies at Peking University. He received his PhD in international politics and relations with a focus in ethnic and religious issues from CICIR in 2006. In 2004 he was a visiting scholar at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. Hu’s three research focuses include the political and security situations in India and Pakistan, ethnic and religious problems in South Asia, and Tibet. Hu published a book titled Tibetans in Exile: The Construction of Group Identities and Its Embarrassment (2008). His most recent research focuses on South Asia—particularly India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan security issues.

Syed Rifaat Hussain is a professor in the faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (S3H) at the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) in Islamabad, Pakistan. Prior to his current position, he served as professor in the Department of Peace and Conflict Studies at the National Defense University in Islamabad, Pakistan. He has also served as professor and chairman of the Department of Defense and Strategic Studies at Quaid-i-Azam University in Islamabad, Pakistan, and as the executive director of the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Hussain serves as a member of the editorial boards of many publications, including the South Asia Journal, Strategic Studies, and Regional Studies. He is the author of numerous books and publications, including Afghanistan and 9/11: The Anatomy of a Conflict (2002) and From Dependence to Intervention: Soviet-Afghanistan Relations During the Brezhnev Era (1964–1982) (1994). He received his MA and PhD in international studies from the University of Denver.

S. Paul Kapur is a professor in the Department of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School. Previously, he was on the faculties of the Naval War College and Claremont McKenna College and was a visiting professor at Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation. He also served as a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Chicago, where he received his PhD in political science. His research and teaching interests include nuclear weapons proliferation, deterrence, ethnoreligious violence, and the international security environment in South Asia. Kapur is author of Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia (2007) and, with Sumit Ganguly, India, Pakistan, and the Bomb: Debating Nuclear Stability in South Asia (2010). His work has also appeared in journals such as International Security, Security Studies, Asian Survey, Nonproliferation Review, Washington Quarterly, and Asian Security, as well as in numerous edited volumes.

Saman Kelegama is the executive director of the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka. He is a fellow of the National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka and was president of the Sri Lanka Economic Association from 1999 to 2003. He has published extensively on Sri Lankan and regional economic issues in both local and international journals. His latest books are Foreign Aid in South Asia: The Emerging Scenario (2012); Trade Liberalization and Poverty in South Asia (2011); Migration, Remittances, and Development in South Asia (2011); Promoting Economic Cooperation in South Asia: Beyond SAFTA (2010); and Trade in Services in South Asia: Opportunities and Risks of Liberalization (2009). He is the coeditor of the South Asia Economic Journal and serves as a referee for a number of international journals. He serves and has served on a number of government and private sector boards as an independent member. He received his PhD and MS in economics from the University of Oxford, and an MS in mathematics from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

Srikanth Kondapalli is professor of Chinese studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University. He is educated in Chinese studies in India and China and holds a PhD in Chinese studies. He learned the Chinese language at Beijing Language and Culture University and was a postdoctoral visiting fellow at People’s University, Beijing, from 1996 to 1998. He was a visiting professor at National Chengchi University, Taipei, in 2004; a visiting fellow at China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, Beijing, in 2007; an honorary professor at Shandong University, Jinan, in 2009 and 2011; and a fellow at Salzburg Global Seminar in 2010. He has written two books and two monographs, coedited three volumes, and authored a number of articles in journals and edited volumes. He received the K. Subramanyam Award in 2010 for Excellence in Research in Strategic and Security Studies.

Sebastien Peyrouse is a research professor in the Central Asia Program at the Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies at George Washington University. His main areas of expertise are political systems in Central Asia, Islam and religious minorities, and Central Asia’s geopolitical positioning toward China, India, and South Asia. He has edited Turkmenistan: Strategies of Power, Dilemmas of Development (2011) and coedited China and India in Central Asia: A New “Great Game”? (2010); The “Chinese Question” in Central Asia: Domestic Order, Social Changes, and the Chinese Factor (2011); and Globalizing Central Asia: Geopolitics and the Challenges of Economic Development (2012). His articles have appeared in Europe-Asia Studies, Nationalities Papers, China Perspectives, Religion, State and Society, and the Journal of Church and State.

Swaran Singh is professor and chair at the Centre for International Politics, Organization and Disarmament at the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He is president of the Association of Asia Scholars, general secretary of the Indian Association of Asian and Pacific Studies, and guest professor at Yunnan University of Economics and Finance in China. Singh has published over a dozen books and monographs and regularly contributes to journals and newspapers. He lectures at India’s National Defense College, Defence Services Staff College, the Foreign Service Institute, and the Indian Institute for Public Administration. Singh is coeditor of China by India: From Civilization to State (2012), Emerging China: Prospects for Partnership in Asia (2012), and Asia’s Multilateralism (2012); editor of China-Pakistan Strategic Cooperation: Indian Perspectives (2007); and coauthor of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute policy paper “Regionalism in South Asian Diplomacy” (2007).

Hui Tong is an economist in the Research Department of the International Monetary Fund. His research focuses on international economics, corporate finance, and China’s economy. He has published approximately twenty journal articles and book chapters, including in the American Economic Review, Review of Financial Studies, and the Journal of International Economics. His work has been featured in the Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, VOX, China Daily, and People’s Daily. Tong received his PhD in economics from the University of California at Berkeley in 2004.

Igor Torbakov is a senior fellow at the Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies at Uppsala University, Sweden. A trained historian, he specializes in Russian and Eurasian history and politics. He was a research scholar at the Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow; a visiting scholar at the Kennan Institute, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC; a Fulbright scholar at Columbia University; a visiting fellow at Harvard University; a fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study; a senior fellow at the Finnish Institute of International Affairs in Helsinki; and a visiting fellow at the German Council on Foreign Relations in Berlin. He holds an MA in history from Moscow State University and a PhD from the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. His recent publications discuss the history of Russian nationalism, the links between Russia’s domestic politics and foreign policy, and the politics of history and memory wars in Eastern Europe.

Zhao Huasheng is professor and director of the Center for Russia and Central Asia Studies, as well as director of the Center for Shanghai Cooperation Organization Studies at Fudan University in Shanghai, China. He has published analytical articles in Chinese, Russian, and English. His recent books include Central Asia: Views from Washington, Moscow, and Beijing (2007); coauthored with Eugene Rumer and Dmitry Trenin, China’s Central Asian Diplomacy (2008); and The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Analysis and Outlook (2012). Zhao earned an advanced degree in Chinese history from Nanjing University.